Those more fortunate created this identity and do nothing to help them. child labour which made it difficult to tackle the issue of child labour in Tanzania also the main causes and types of child labour in Rufiji district were poverty, cultural beliefs lack of education, inaccessibility of school skill acquisition, low payment Child labor: Are girls affected differently from boys? Fifteen studies examined physical health effects of child labor, including nutritional status, physical growth, work-related illnesses/symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, HIV infection, systematic symptoms, infectious diseases, tuberculosis and eyestrain. This example has been uploaded by a student. Child labour, education and health: A review of the literature. Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. Awkward posture and heavy physical work were associated with musculoskeletal pain, while monotonous work, awkward posture and noise were associated with back pain.23 A study in Nicaragua, which focused on children working in agriculture, reported that child labor in agriculture poses a serious threat to children’s health; specifically, acute pesticides poisoning.24, A study conducted in India reported that the prevalence of eyestrain in child laborers was 25.9%, which was significantly more than the 12.4% prevalence in a comparison group. Research conducted in the UK, because of adverse outcomes in children, resulted in acts for child labor in 18 02.3 Many countries followed the UK, in recognition of the associated health risks. gives the example that in Egypt girls are expected to do the majority of work in the home, in the Dominican Republic are compelled to look after their siblings as well as maintain a household. A new study called Effects of Public Policy on Child Labor summarizes the evidence on the relationship between policy interventions and child labor, highlights gaps in our understanding of this relationship, and discusses implications for program design. First, we acknowledge that all systematic reviews are subject to publication bias. A study concerned with child abuse in Bangladesh reported that the prevalence of abuse and child exploitation was widespread. Address correspondence to Abdalla Ibrahim, E-mail: Search for other works by this author on: Department of Epidemiology, Boston University, Boston, USA, Jazan University, Gizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Division of Global Neurosurgey and Neurology, Duke University, Durham, USA, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, USA, Child labor. In addition, all studies concluded that child labor is associated with one or more forms of abuse. Those who do participate in the work force may even be working to do the one thing they can do to end generational poverty, by educating themselves. Child labor was found to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, including but not limited to poor growth, malnutrition, higher incidence of infectious and system-specific diseases, behavioral and emotional disorders, and decreased coping efficacy. The main reason which gives rise to child labour is widespread unemployment and underemployment among the adult poor strata of the population, inter alia, due … We have not reviewed the policies targeting child labor here, yet our findings show that regardless of policies in place, further action is needed. As an example, the 1991 census of India reports that 56.6% of 5 to 14-year-old boys were in school, 5.2% were participants in economic activities, 0.5% were marginal workers, and 37.7% were nowhere. Child labor subjects children to abuse, whether verbally, physically or sexually which ultimately results in psychological disturbances and behavioral disorders. 2014). (22 March 2017) Common social policy interventions can reduce child labor, but may also have unintended consequences. Furthermore, the frequency of reporting any injury or illness increases with the number of hours worked, with significant variation across employment sectors.13 A study in Iran reported that industrial workrooms were the most common place for injury (58.2%). Lower attendance in school could create a continues cycle of generational poverty, children should attend school, acquire human capital, become more productive adults, earn higher wages, increase the welfare of their own families and escape the need for their offspring to work(Galli,2001). Children’s Manifest Anxiety Questionnaire, the Hopelessness Scale, and the Self-Esteem Inventory, Social life and habits, nutritional habits, recent complaints (last 2 weeks), chronic illnesses, health during the last year, anxiety, hopelessness, self-esteem, Age, gender, working lives, workplace characteristics, family income, family status including number of siblings and parents, Physical, emotional and sexual abuse, as well as physical neglect, Developing countries according to the WB classification, Gender, adult mortality rate for men, adult mortality rate for women, percentage of the population below the poverty line, percentage of adults infected with HIV/AIDS, percentage of the population undernourished, percentage of children aged 10–14 years who were workers (child labor prevalence), The mortality rate among boys aged 10–14 years, the mortality rate among girls aged 10–14 years, and the percentage of the population aged 10–14 years undernourished, Age, gender, employment duration, working hours, Age, duration of employment, working hours per day, reasons for working, Systematic symptoms including respiratory, GIT, Musculoskeletal, skin and CNS symptoms, Eye strain and repeated injury, Physical health (respiratory morbidities), Age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure, X-ray, Respiratory morbidities (TB, Hilar gland enlargement/calcification), Copyright © 2021 Faculty of Public Health. Falling from heights or in horizontal surface was the most common mechanism of injury (44%). (n.d.). (n.d.). Becker suggests that cash transfer programs could be a major benefit; this would provide poor families with a guaranteed monthly income and relieve the pressure parents may feel to send their child to work. The literature review. The next step would be to implement a strong set of effective laws and enforce penalties for people continuing to exploit children. Previous reviews have described different adverse health impacts of child labor. It is a human Samonova Elena gives the example of a study by Edmons and Pavchnick who found that of rural Vietnam claims that 75% of cross-country variations of child labour can be explained by income variations and conclude that child labour is a symptom of poverty. 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