Int. Effective communication in the game of soccer provides teammates with valuable information for making optimal decisions on and off the ball. What is worse, it is sometimes these very same players, who because of their own ability expect the same level, of play from the weaker players in the team, and when, the ball goes astray they get frustrated and call out, negatively to their team-mate. 7, 293–312. Each player has a position and an area they are, responsible for, and in that area they should play, like a captain and communicate accordingly, calling players, into their area as needed and advising them what they, expect of them in their area. This leads on to verbal communication in small groups. This means that they have known each other from the normal training and competitions for at least 5 months (M = 15.00; SD = 11.10). Accordingly, the sum of the absolute differences between these 2 × 2 values over all ten items resulted in the team reciprocity index [e.g., |(5-5)| + |(2-5)| = |3|]. 26, 542–560. Relation means that team members’ actions must be arranged correctly according to three dimensions: action type (e.g., what to do or how to do an action), timing (e.g., when to do an action), and location (e.g., where to do an action) (Eccles, 2010). Erg. Task-irrelevant communications are positive or negative messages with no bearing on performance. Communication not only means talking to each other, but non-verbal communication also plays an important. Yukelson, D. P. (2015). Front. To indicate which receiver should go in motion from one side to the other, the quarterback will tap the hip of his center on the side of the leg in which the receiver is lined up, cuing the receiver to make his move. Although the players had known each other for at least 5 months, their evaluations became more accurate after practicing the specific task together for only a few times. (2018). Sport Exerc. It is assumed, that when team members do have similar knowledge about these dimensions, the coordination of the single actions is effective and permits a flowing and effortless team action. Institute of Sport Science, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Communication can occur in person or electronically. For example the self-evaluation of player A as the pass giver is: “In the overlapping run situation, I play the pass very precise into the foot of my teammate” (LS = 5) and the evaluation of player A about player B as a pass receiver is: “In the overlapping run situation, he demands/desires the pass very precise into the foot” (LS = 5). Why an expert team is more than a team of experts: a social-cognitive conceptualization of team coordination and communication in sport. doi: 10.1518/001872099779591196, Gershgoren, L., Filho, E. M., Tenenbaum, G., and Schinke, R. J. A responsibility for communication. Verbal and non-verbal communication used together can. Sport 80, 281–290. Group Process and Productivity. Accordance index scores and number of communication units at the two measurement points (N = 23 pairs; means and standard deviations). The game of baseball is ruled by the giving, and sometimes stealing, of signs and signals, and other team sports have their own unspoken codes that allow teams to work together without giving away their secrets to the opposition. 37, 255–285. sometimes let themselves down with their communication, failing to show their team-mates what their intention is. A general understanding that may exist because of familiarity reasons (knowing each other beforehand from training and match experience) could therefore be underpinned by a more detailed and specific knowledge. In interactive team sports, such as football, players perform in a highly dynamic environment involving time constraints and physiological restrictions (Gershgoren et al., 2013). doi: 10.1123/jcsp.7.4.293, Gorman, J. Verbal communication is the spoken word, while nonverbal communication involves actions, facial expressions, body position, and gestures. The face is an important communicator. Rev. Conclusion. Description of dynamic shared knowledge: an exploratory study during a competitive team sports interaction. sometimes let themselves down with their communication, As a pass giver (player in blue), I play the pass in the overlapping run situation, …, Keywords: team cognition, shared knowledge, verbal communication, collective training, team coordination, football, Citation: Blaser MA and Seiler R (2019) Shared Knowledge and Verbal Communication in Football: Changes in Team Cognition Through Collective Training. Psychol. To facilitate better understanding, illustrations accompanied the questions about action location and action timing (see Appendix for an example). As referees, we have a tough ride in general; particularly those operating at the top level with English Premier League officials being perhaps the most ‘scrutinised’ of all. Furthermore, in game communication tends to be more relevant than out of game communication, because it is assumed more and directly related to performance outcomes (Sullivan et al., 2014; Tenenbaum and Gershgoren, 2014). The responsible team managers/coaches made these player ratings beforehand. These ratings were based on previous training and match experiences. Q. Exerc. 28, 99–112. It is commonly said that the face is the … 22, 486–499. Seiler, R. (2014). Question: As a pass giver in the overlapping run and double pass situation, when do you play the pass? Home. When speaking clearly, confidently, and with poise, you are much more likely to command the respect of others and build rapport. Any interaction that makes use of spoken words is considered as verbal communication. Sport Exerc. Based on Cooke’s et al.’s (2013) postulation that “team cognition is inextricably tied to context” (p. 273), we, together with football experts, created ten situation-specific single items to gather relevant shared knowledge related to the specific football team task. (2007). (2013). But like all complex skills, it is also complicated. Marc A. Blaser * and Roland Seiler. Each player rated his actions and the actions of his teammate by the three coordination parameters action type (1 item overall), location (two items, one item for each situation; overlapping run and double pass) and timing (two items, one item for each situation) from the pass giver’s perspective (e.g., “how fast do you/does he play passes in the task?”; “where do you/does he play the pass in the overlapping run/double pass situation?”; “when do you/does he play the pass in the overlapping run/double pass situation?”) and from the pass receiver’s perspective (e.g., “how good is your/is his skill to receive passes in the task?”; “where do you/does he demand/desire the pass in the overlapping/double pass situation?”; “when do you/does he demand/desire the pass in the overlapping/double pass situation?”). Strong verbal communication skills are important for everyone to master. 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